Science & Engineering Department

Mr. Dave Hruskoci, Director

Phone: 508-841-8836 Email: dhruskoci@shrewsbury.k12.ma.us

Science

In this academic area, students learn more than the basic knowledge about specific sciences; students learn the lifelong skill of approaching a problem in a scientific manner. In our technology-based society with its rapid rate of change, having a solid science background will be an essential asset for students to make informed decisions.

Using the Massachusetts Science and Technology/Engineering High School Standards, Next Generation Standards, and Common Core Standards as guides for teaching practices, the Science & Engineering Department: (1) Builds on students' curiosity and existing knowledge by modeling questioning along with making connections between the present science course and ideas carried over from earlier studies and experiences. (2) Expands the inquiry approach to laboratory investigations. Often, investigations are open-ended, allowing students to move in directions that develop as students generate questions and find ways to answer their own questions. (3) Develops habits of mind that emphasize respect for evidence, persistence, open-mindedness and awareness of the effects of our actions on the surroundings in which we live. (4) Integrates technology, science, mathematics and human affairs to investigate complex problems faced in today's world. (5) Emphasizes the applications of all areas of science to our students' lives..

Students in ninth grade will take a discipline-specific Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS) exam based on their enrollment in either Introductory Physics or Biology. Passing a science MCAS exam is a graduation requirement of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.

General Full Year Course Offerings
Intro Physics - Lab Level Chemistry - Lab Level
Intro Physics - A Level Chemistry - A Level
Intro Physics - Honors Level Chemistry - Honors Level
Biology - Lab Level Chemistry - Honors Research Method
Biology - A Level Physics - A Level
Biology - Honors Level Physics - Honors Level
Biology - Honors Research Methods Environmental Science - A Level / Honors
Human Anatomy & Physiology - Honors Level Principles of Biomedical Science - A Level
  Human Body Systems - A Level

Advanced Placement (AP) and Semester Electives

Advanced Placement - prerequisite(s) Semester Electives (12th grade Only)
AP Chemistry - Honors Chemistry Bio Ethics - A level / Honors
AP Biology - Hon. Bio & Hon. Chem Astronomy - A level / Honors
AP Environmental - Hon. Bio & Chem Oceanography - A level / Honors
AP Physics I - Hon physics or AP Science & Hon Pre-Calc  
AP Physics C - Hon physics & co-enroll in AP Calc AB or higher  
   

Lab Introductory Physics (3010TT)

Meets Expectations for Student-Learning: 1-7

Elective                                    Full Year                Grades: 9-10                       B Level

Prerequisite: Course placement is based on the teacher's recommendation and past academic performance.

This course is a study of the essential, fundamental physical laws that govern our universe. Skills in laboratory procedures, quantitative manipulations, graphical interpretations, and scientific habits of mind are developed. Students learn the practical applications of major concepts in forces and motion, energy and momentum, heat, waves and electromagnetism. Teachers emphasize the close association between science and technologies and integrate appropriate technology applications. This course is considered a lab science.

Introductory Physics (3011)

Meets Expectations for Student-Learning: 1-7

Elective                                    Full Year                Grades: 9-10                       A Level

Prerequisite: Course placement is based on the teacher's recommendation and past academic performance.

Introductory Physics is a conceptual and mathematical study of fundamental physical laws that govern our universe. Skills in laboratory procedures, quantitative manipulations, graphical interpretations, and scientific habits of mind are developed. Course topics include forces and motion, energy and momentum, heat, waves and electromagnetism. Teachers emphasize the close association between science and technologies and integrate appropriate technology applications. This course is considered a lab science.

Introductory Physics Honors (3012)

Meets Expectations for Student-Learning: 1-7

Elective                                    Full Year                Grades: 9-10                       Honors

Prerequisite: Algebra I or Algebra/Geometry I - Course placement is based on the teacher's recommendation and past academic performance.

This course is for students who are recommended for an Honors level science course in grade 9, but will not be concurrently enrolled in Honors Algebra & Geometry II (or a higher level math course).

Honors Introductory Physics is a study of the fundamental physical laws that govern our universe, stressing both concept and mathematical interpretation. Skills in laboratory procedures, quantitative manipulations, graphical interpretations, and scientific habits of mind are developed and applied. Course topics include forces and motion, energy and momentum, heat, waves and electromagnetism. Teachers emphasize the relationship between evidence and models, and integrate appropriate technology applications. Students are expected to complete additional projects or conduct additional research that compliments their work in class. This course is considered a lab science.

Lab Biology (3018T)

Meets Expectations for Student-Learning: 1-7

Elective                                    Full Year                Grades: 10-12                                      B Level Prerequisite: Introductory Physics and teacher recommendation.

This course is designed to give students an introduction to the most essential concepts related to ecology, chemistry of life, cell structure and function, genetics, evolution and biodiversity, as well as selected topics in anatomy and physiology. Practical laboratory exercises following the scientific method will provide students with experiences in biological problem solving. These exercises are designed to reinforce the material taught & discussed in class. Course is considered a lab science.

Biology (3019)

Meets Expectations for Student-Learning: 1-7

Elective                                    Full Year                Grades: 10-12                                      A Level Prerequisite: Introductory Physics and teacher recommendation.

Biology is designed to give students an introduction to ecology, chemistry of life, cell structure and function, genetics, evolution and biodiversity, as well as selected topics in anatomy and physiology. Practical laboratory exercises following the scientific method will provide the student with experiences in biological problem solving. These exercises are designed to reinforce the material taught and discussed in class. This course is considered a lab science.

Biology Honors (3020)

Meets Expectations for Student-Learning: 1-7

Elective                                    Full Year                Grades: 9-11                       Honors

For Grade 9 students: Co-requisite = Honors Algebra & Geometry II (or higher level math course), teacher recommendation and past academic performance. For grades 10-12 students: prerequisite = teacher recommendation and past academic performance. Honors Biology is a course designed for students who demonstrate high academic achievement and motivation in science and mathematics. Students will be expected to complete a significant amount of reading and writing assignments, as well as quantitative and qualitative analysis of laboratory work.  Topics emphasized include ecology, chemistry of life, cell structure and function, genetics, evolution and biodiversity, as well as selected topics in anatomy and physiology. An independent or team research project will be completed. This course is considered a lab science.

Research Methods and Biology Honors (3058)

Meets Expectations for Student-Learning: 1-7

Elective                                    Full Year                Grades: 9                               Honors

Co-requisite: Research Methods Honors Algebra and Geometry II. Course placement is based on the teacher's recommendation and past academic performance.

Students will be required to complete a year-long independent research project in the field of science and/or math under the guidance of their teachers. Students who sign up for this course must also sign up for Research Methods & Honors Algebra and Geometry II. This course covers the same curriculum content as Honors Biology with an added emphasis on integrating concepts from Honors Algebra and Geometry II with scientific data developed in and out of the classroom. Note: this course meets for an extra period two days out of the 7-day cycle only during first semester. All research methods students are expected to participate in the school science fair which takes place in February. This course is considered a lab science.

Lab Chemistry (3024)

Meets Expectations for Student-Learning: 1-7

Elective                                    Full Year                Grades: 11-12                                      B Level Prerequisite: Teacher recommendation.

This class is designed to give students an introduction to the most essential concepts related to the structure and composition of substances and the changes the substances undergo. Topics include properties of matter, atomic structure, bonding, reactions, basic stoichiometry, gases, solutions, and acids and bases. Emphasis is placed on experimentation, use of scientific method and applications of chemistry to the world. Daily assignments and activities engage students in the application of chemistry, making attendance imperative.

Chemistry (3025)

Meets Expectations for Student-Learning: 1-7

Elective                                    Full Year                Grades: 10-12                                      A Level Prerequisite: A level Algebra & Geometry II (or higher) and Teacher recommendation.

Chemistry is the science dealing with the structure and composition of substances and the mechanisms by which changes in composition occur. Topics include properties of matter, atomic structure, periodicity, chemical bonding, reactions and stoichiometry, behavior of gases, solutions, acids and bases, and selected topics in equilibrium, kinetics, thermochemistry, and electrochemistry. Emphasis is placed on experimentation, use of the scientific method, problem solving and the applications of chemistry to the world. Daily assignments and activities engage students in the applications of chemistry. This course is considered a lab science.

Chemistry Honors (3026)

Meets Expectations for Student-Learning: 1-7

Elective                                    Full Year                Grades: 10-12                                      Honors

For grade 10 students: prerequisite = Honors Algebra/Geometry II or co-enrollment in Honors Advanced Math 1 (or higher), and teacher recommendation. For grade 11-12 students: Prerequisite = Honors Adv. Math 1 or co-enrollment in Honors Pre-Calc (or higher).

Honors Chemistry is designed to prepare students for AP Chemistry. This course addresses the structure and composition of substances and the mechanisms by which changes in composition occur. Content focuses on similar topics as those addressed in A level Chemistry, but coverage is in greater depth, and at a faster pace compared to the A level course. Topics include properties of matter, atomic structure, periodicity, chemical bonding, reactions and stoichiometry, behavior of gases, solutions, acids and bases, equilibrium, kinetics, thermochemistry, and electrochemistry. Emphasis is placed on experimentation, use of the scientific method, problem solving and the applications of chemistry to the world. A high level of self-discipline is required for the completion of independent assignments. Strong mathematical reasoning is essential for success in this course. This course is a lab science.

Research Methods and Chemistry Honors (3038)

Meets Expectations for Student-Learning: 1-7

Elective                                    Full Year                Grades: 10-11                                      Honors

Co-requisite: Research Methods Honors Advanced Math 1, and teacher recommendation.

Students will be required to complete a yearlong research project in the fields of science, engineering or math under the guidance of their teachers. Students who sign up for this course must also sign up for Research Methods & Honors Advanced Math I. This course covers the same content as Honors Chemistry. Note: this course meets for an extra period two days out of the 7-day cycle only during 1st semester. All research methods students are expected to participate in the school science fair which takes place in February. This course is considered a lab science.

This course is considered a lab science.

Physics (3015)

Meets Expectations for Student-Learning: 1-7

Elective                                    Full Year                Grades: 11-12                                      A Level Prerequisite: Advanced Math I and teacher recommendation.

Physics is a course that builds students’ conceptual understanding of physical principles and complements this understanding with mathematical applications. Students considering a career in any scientific field will benefit from having physics at the high school level prior to encountering it for the first time in college. Topics include forces and motion, energy and momentum, waves, light and sound, and electricity. This course includes training in reasoning, as well as instruction in the concepts of physics. There will be project-based experiences as well as traditional laboratory work requiring both traditional methods and computer-assisted data acquisition and analysis techniques. This course is considered a lab science.

Physics Honors (3016)

Meets Expectations for Student-Learning: 1-7

Elective                                    Full Year                Grades: 11-12                                      Honors

Prerequisite: Honors Advanced Math I OR Co-requisite: Honors Pre-Calculus (or higher honors math course) and teacher recommendation.

Honors Physics is a course that builds students’ conceptual understanding of physical principles and complements this understanding with mathematical applications. Areas covered in this course are: vectors vs. scalars, graphical analysis of motion, mechanics: kinematics and dynamics, conservation of momentum, conservation of energy, circular motion, the universal law of gravitation, planetary motion, waves: light and sound, electrostatics, basic DC electricity, and magnetism. An inquiry approach is taken with laboratory work. Laboratory experiences will include traditional and computer-assisted data acquisition and analysis techniques. A high level of self-discipline is required for the completion of independent assignments. Strong mathematical reasoning is essential for success in this course. Course is considered a lab science.

Environmental Science (A-3041F, H-3048F)

Meets Expectations for Student Learning: 1-7

Elective                                    Full Year                Grades: 11-12                                      A Level Prerequisite: Biology and Chemistry and teacher recommendation.

In this course students study the connection between the human population and the use of the Earth's resources. Topics include fresh water sources and pollution, air quality and climate change, land use and agriculture, renewable and non-renewable resources, waste, recycling and governmental policy (both domestic and internationally). Students will participate in and complete selected research projects and laboratory investigations that require a basic understanding of chemistry (the periodic table and reactions) and ecology (biomes and diversity). Honors students will be expected to do extensive and sustained independent research and analysis outside of class and present their findings in written, visual and oral formats. Course is considered a lab science.

Human Anatomy and Physiology Honors (3022T)

Meets Expectations for Student-Learning: 1-7

Elective                                    Full Year                Grades: 11-12                                      Honors Prerequisite: Honors Biology and Honors Chemistry or A level Chemistry and teacher recommendation.

This is a rigorous course for students interested in any healthcare field, scientific research or biology in general. Learning experiences are designed to explore the anatomy (structure) and physiology (function) of each of the systems in the human body, as well as topics such as nutrition and exercise as they relate to physiology. The laboratory component of this course includes a significant amount of animal dissection in order to model the anatomy of the human body. These dissections are important as they provide hands-on learning experiences that allow students to practice the skill of applying content to the real world. Students who may be uncomfortable with the graphic nature of studying organ tissues up close should strongly consider whether or not this is an appropriate course selection. Course is considered a lab science.

Advanced Placement Physics 1 (3071)

Meets Expectations for Student-Learning: 1-7

Elective                                    Full Year                Grades: 11 -12                                     Advanced Placement Prerequisite: Honors Physics or AP Chemistry or AP Biology or AP Environmental. Co-requisite: Honors Pre-Calculus. And teacher recommendation.

Advanced Placement Physics 1 is an algebra-based, introductory college-level physics course. The course covers Newtonian mechanics (including rotational dynamics and angular momentum), work, energy, power, mechanical waves, sound and an introduction to electric circuits. See h ttp://apcentral.collegeboard.com for more information. Students need to be proficient  with algebra and trigonometry for this course. Through inquiry-based learning, students will develop scientific critical thinking and reasoning skills. This course requires that 25 percent of the instructional time will be spent in hands-on laboratory work, with an emphasis on inquiry-based investigations that provide students with opportunities to apply the science practices. Students are expected to take the AP Physics 1 version of the Advanced Placement Exam in May. A summer assignment is required. This course is considered a lab science.

Advanced Placement Physics C (3017T)

Meets Expectations for Student-Learning: 1-7

Elective                                    Full Year                Grade: 12                              Advanced Placement

Prerequisite: Intro Physics (A or Hon) or Honors Physics. Co-requisite: Enrollment in AP Calculus AB or higher. And teacher recommendation

This course in mechanics is a calculus-based, college-level physics course, especially appropriate for students planning to specialize or major in one of the physical sciences or engineering. Students cultivate their understanding of physics through classroom study and activities as well as hands-on laboratory work as they explore concepts like change, force interactions, fields, and conservation. Topics include: kinematics, Newton’s laws, work, energy, power, systems of particles and linear momentum, rotation, oscillations, and gravitation. Students are expected to take the AP Physics C - Mechanics version of the Advanced Placement Exam in May. Course is considered a Lab science.

Advanced Placement Biology (3021)

Meets Expectations for Student-Learning: 1-7

Elective                                    Full Year                Grades: 11-12                                      Advanced Placement Prerequisite: Honors Biology and Honors Chemistry and teacher recommendation.

This course is designed to be the equivalent of a first year college biology course given to science majors (see http://apcentral.collegeboard.com). By achieving a certain proficiency on  the Advanced Placement examination given in May, credit may be granted at a number of colleges. Using a college textbook, the course is a fast-paced and in-depth study of the fundamentals of biology and focuses on the requirements established by the College Board. A minimum of eight inquiry-based laboratory experiments will be completed during the year. Each lab involves considerable analysis of data. Summer reading and/or a special project are required. Students are expected to take the Advanced Placement Exam in May. This course is an excellent review for material on the SAT II. This course is considered a lab science.

Advanced Placement Chemistry (3027)

Meets Expectations for Student-Learning: 1-7

Elective                                    Full Year                Grades: 11-12                                      Advanced Placement Prerequisite: Honors Chemistry and Honors Advanced Math 1 (or higher math course), teacher recommendation and past academic performance.

Advanced Placement Chemistry is designed to be the equivalent of a rigorous college general chemistry course and focuses on the requirements established by the College Board (See <http://apcentral.collegeboard.com>). Emphasis will be on the quantitative reasoning and problem-solving skills necessary to explain chemical phenomena and enable predictions. Topics include: solution and gas stoichiometry, modern atomic theory, chemical bonding, colligative properties, chemical kinetics, thermochemistry and thermodynamics, chemical equilibrium, reaction prediction and electrochemistry. Laboratory work largely focuses on structured, guided and open inquiry-based experiments. AP Students will be expected to write explanations to non-quantitative questions based on their developed knowledge of chemical principles, and to conduct mathematical manipulations in preparation for the AP Chemistry exam given in May. Summer work and/or a special project may be required. The course can be taken in either the junior or senior year. Students are expected to take the Advanced Placement Exam in May. Note: this course meets for an extra period two-days out of a 7-day cycle. This course is considered a lab science.

Advanced Placement Environmental Science (3030)

Meets Expectations for Student-Learning: 1-7

Elective                                    Full Year                Grades: 11-12                                      Advanced Placement Prerequisite: Honors Biology and Chemistry and teacher recommendation.

This course is designed to be the equivalent of a one semester, introductory college course in environmental science. (see http://apcentral.collegeboard.com). By achieving a certain proficiency on the Advanced Placement examination given in May, credit may be granted at a number of colleges. The course is a fast-paced and in-depth study of Environmental Science and focuses on the requirements established by the College Board. Topics include: Earth systems and resources, the living world, populations, land & water use, energy resources & consumption, pollution, and global changes. This course includes field lab investigations. Summer work and/or a special project may be required. Students are expected to take the Advanced Placement Exam in May. Course is considered a lab science.

Principles of Biomedical Science (3075)

Meets Expectations for Student-Learning: 1-7

Elective                                    Full Year                Grades: 9-12                                          A Level

Prerequisite: Course placement is based on the teacher's recommendation and past academic performance.

In this Project Lead The Way course students explore concepts of biology and medicine to determine factors that led to the death of a fictional person. While investigating the case, students examine autopsy reports, investigate medical history, and explore medical treatments that might have prolonged the person’s life. The activities and projects introduce students to human physiology, basic biology, medicine, and research processes while allowing them to design their own experiments to solve problems. Course is considered a lab science.

Human Body Systems (3076)

Meets Expectations for Student-Learning: 1-7

Elective                                    Full Year                Grades: 9-12                                         

A Level Prerequisite: Biology, teacher recommendation, and past academic performance.

In this Project Lead The Way course, students examine the interactions of body systems as they explore identity, communication, power, movement, protection, and homeostasis. Students design experiments, investigate the structures and functions of the human body, and use data acquisition software to monitor body functions such as muscle movement, reflex and voluntary action, and respiration. Exploring science in action, students build organs and tissues on a skeletal manikin, work through real world cases, and act as biomedical professionals to solve medical mysteries. Course is considered a lab science. NOTE: This course will not run during the 2021-2022 school year.

Oceanography (A-3068, H-3070)

Meets Expectations for Student-Learning: 1-7

Elective                                    Semester               Grades: 11-12                                       A Level or Honors Prerequisite: Course placement is based on the teacher's recommendation and past academic performance.

In this course students explore the physical and biological features of Earth's oceans. Topics include the ecology of various aquatic ecosystems, ocean chemistry, tidal mechanics, marine life, threats to our oceans, and conservation of the oceans. Honors students will be expected to do extensive and sustained independent research and analysis outside of class and present their findings in written, visual and oral formats. This course is considered a semester lab science.

Astronomy (A-3013T, H-3049)

Meets Expectations for Student-Learning: 1-7

Elective                                    Semester               Grades: 11-12                                     

A Level or Honors A level Prerequisite: Teacher recommendation.

Honors level Prerequisite: Functions and Trig. or Pre-Calculus and teacher recommendation

In this course students study the structure of our solar system, galaxy and the universe. Students research the various contributions that ancient civilizations have made to the field of astronomy and how increased technology throughout history has helped our knowledge and understanding of the origins and structures of planets, stars, galaxies and the universe. Honors students will be expected to do extensive and sustained independent research and analysis outside of class and present their findings in written, visual and oral formats. Honors students are also required to attend 2 evening observations at the high school and complete 1 long-term independent observation experiment per quarter. This course is considered a semester lab science.

Bioethics (A-3023, Honors-3028)

Meets Expectations for Student-Learning: 1-7

Elective                                    Semester               Grade: 12                             

A Level or Honors Prerequisite: Biology and teacher recommendation.

Bioethics provides students with an opportunity to examine and discuss the social, ethical and legal dilemmas that arise from advances in medicine and biotechnology. Topics include organ donation and transplantation, abortion, assisted reproduction, euthanasia and assisted suicide, death and dying, environmental ethics, medical ethics, animal research and genetic technologies. Position papers on selected topics are assigned as part of the curriculum. Honors students will be expected to do extensive and sustained independent research and analysis outside of class and present their findings in written, visual and oral formats.

Engineering

Students in engineering classes learn how technology draws from science and mathematics to fashion products that solve practical problems encountered in our lives. Whether the student is learning about established processes or developing new technological processes, the engineering protocol becomes evident in each technology education course. This protocol entails:

●      Identifying a need that can be addressed by technological inventions or innovations.

●      Using mathematical and scientific background along with creativity to fashion solutions that address the need.

●      Visualizing solutions in graphical form in two and three dimensions.

●      Building prototypes to test and redesign based on the outcome of preliminary testing results.

●      Making engineering presentations of the solution.

●      Considering the societal impacts and tradeoffs of the new technology.

The varied course selections offered in Engineering provide all students with opportunities to explore technology, solve problems, develop effective and safe work habits, gain an appreciation for the engineering design process, work cooperatively with others and apply knowledge in a practical manner. Four important areas of Engineering are emphasized: 1) communication, 2) design 3)/manufacturing and 4) power/energy/transportation.

In addition to semester electives, the Engineering department offers three courses from the national Project Lead the Way curriculum. These courses offer a rigorous introduction to, and exploration of, the field of engineering.

Course Offerings:

Exploring Technology (5202)

Meets Expectations for Students Learning: 1-7

Elective                                    Semester               Grades: 9 -12                                        A Level

This course runs during the first semester. It is designed to offer the student an exploratory experience in general technology. Students rotate through ten different modular workstations where they gain technological knowledge by performing hands-on activities in the fields of: construction, basic electricity, electronic communications, hydraulics, pneumatics, materials and processes, mechanisms, research and design, aerodynamics, and alternative energy. Students will also use the engineering design process to identify a design problem within constraints, evaluate ideas, build and test prototypes. This course can fulfill part of the science credit requirement for graduation.

Robotics/Electronics (5210)

Meets Expectations for Students Learning: 1-7

Elective                                    Semester               Grades: 9-12                            A Level

This course runs during the second semester. Robots are devices that have the intelligence to interpret information, make decisions, and then effect their environment. The fundamentals of electrical circuits (i.e. components and configurations) will be examined through class-work and hands-on activities, including circuit construction. Students in this class will also explore the relationship between humans, computers, and machines by utilizing the engineering design process to design and fabricate robotic devices. No previous background is required.

Engineering the Future (5221TT)

Meets Expectations for Students Learning: 1-7

Elective                                    Full Year                Grades: 9-12                        A Level

This course is a year-long implementation of the Engineering the Future curriculum developed by the Boston Museum of Science and provides students with an introduction to engineering and technology through hands-on activities, cooperative learning and problem-solving. Students will use the engineering design process to design and build projects in the following units: design and manufacturing, thermal and fluid systems, electricity and communications, and construction and integrated systems. This course can fulfill part of the science credit requirement for graduation.

Introduction to Engineering Design (IED) (5229T)

Meets Expectation for Students Learning: 1-7

Elective                                    Full Year                Grades: 9-12                        A Level Prerequisite: Algebra I or Algebra/Geometry I

Using the nationally recognized Project Lead the Way hands-on curriculum, students will explore the Engineering Design Cycle in problem-based projects. They will also learn to use sophisticated three-dimensional modeling software to create and communicate the details of their products. Emphasis is placed on analyzing potential solutions and communicating ideas to others. This engineering course is designed to enable students to explore the field as a career choice and provides the rigorous, relevant training required to excel in any related post-secondary program. This course is recommended as the first course in the Project Lead the Way engineering sequence and can fulfill part of the science credit requirement for graduation.

Principles of Engineering Honors (POE) (5228)

Meets Expectation for Students Learning: 1-7

Elective                                    Full Year                Grades: 10-12                                       Honors Prerequisite: Algebra/Geometry II

Using the nationally recognized Project Lead the Way hands-on curriculum, students explore the wide variety of engineering and technology principles in the areas such as mechanisms, thermodynamics, electrical systems and materials testing. Using activities, projects and problem solving, students investigate the integration of math, science, and technology in engineering applications. This engineering course is designed to enable students to explore the field as a career choice and provides the rigorous, relevant training required to excel in any related post-secondary program. This course can fulfill part of the science credit requirement for graduation

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